Ah, it’s quoting literature … Each student encounters a problem called citation of literature during a study. When scientific research is concerned, whether it is quoted in literature in matriculation and seminar work, or whether it is a higher degree of writing scientific papers, such as the presentation of literature in a bachelor, master or doctoral thesis. Regardless of writing experience, the majority of the work is considered problematic, so look at how the literature should look like.
It should be said that quoting in scientific papers can vary from the needs and character of the work, as well as from the demands of the professor. Most faculties make a special manual for writing academic papers. If this is not the case with you, this text may help you to overcome technical problems and thus make it easier to create. Of course, we will also go through what citation styles exist, such as Apache, Chicago etc.
What are academic papers?
All seminar papers, papers, essays, diploma, master, specialist and doctoral theses are academic works. So, these are scientific research projects made by students within faculty duties. Although these works are essentially all different concepts, what connects them is the basic form of academic writing that must inevitably be fulfilled in order to make certain content valued.
What does reading literature mean?
Citation means literally quoting the author’s words (when placed under the signs of quotation), paraphrasing and summarying. It provides bibliographic information, that is, the name of the author, the title of the work, year of publication and the numbered page from which the quote is taken.
If in his work the student states the words or attitudes he has taken from another work or book, it is necessary to indicate it, otherwise it will be considered a plagiarist. This shows that he has performed the necessary research on a given topic, and allows future readers to get acquainted with other similar works within the same field.
The data on the quoted text is mentioned in the paper twice. In the text of work (bracket at the end of the quotation) or in the footnote, and at the very end of the text in the list of used literature.
The bibliographic reference contains:
- surname and name of the author,
- number of issues,
- place of publication,
- name of the publisher,
- year of issue,
- number of volumes and
- page number.
Reference to literature according to style – different citation styles
Different styles have been created in different scientific organizations and most are related to one scientific field, but it does not have to be compulsory. It is common for everyone to quote accurate data and uniformity in scientific work. In practice, the following styles are used:
# 1 APA Style Citation (Apa Standard)
The APA citation was developed by the American Psychological Association. It is recommended to societies when referring literature to seminar work.
# 2 Chicago style
It is often used in our country, especially in social and humanistic sciences.
# 3 Harvard Style Literature Citation
For this style, it is characteristic that brief notes in the reading of the reader point to the end of the work, where the bibliographic data is given.
# 4 Oxford style
It is used in humanities.
# 5 MLA style
A system that is used in the works of linguistics and literature. Developed by Modern Language Assoaciation.
# 6 AMA style
AMA style is the work of the American Medical Association, and therefore it is mostly used in the field of medicine.
# 7 NLM style
The NLM-style citation is also used in medical science, but has been developed by the National Medical Library.
# 8 CSE / CBE
The work of the Council of Scientific Researchers in order to solve the eternal dilemma about quoting the text. It is designed to be close to all other styles, so they are easily interchangeable with it.
As you have seen in our example when citing the laws, regulations, regulations, the name of the publication and the number with the year of publication are stated.
Content downloaded from the Internet, as a source for scientific work, is listed in the same way as the others, ie the name or names of the author and the site from which the content was downloaded.
Non-PDF electronic books should be viewed as any electronic document and provide a link to the website, as well as the chapters from which the text was downloaded (because it is not possible to specify the page).
Computer literacy program
What makes students easy to create are cyber-manager programs that can be found on the Internet. With the help of these programs, in drafting the work we can without typing to transfer bibliographic data into the text itself in different styles.
By searching the Internet you can find many more similar programs that work the same principle. Choose a style by consulting with your mentor. However, whatever you choose, you will not make a mistake. The most important thing is to stay consistent, which means that if you chose a Chicago style, you will use it to the end of the text, as well as in the guidance of literature.
Where to find sources for scientific research?
If you have learned how to cite authors, but you are not sure about the data about the source work (source) and the local author you are citing or paraphrasing, you need to find his work through various online tools available, such as the Serbian quotation index.
Here’s where to find all the information about the author and the work, so that the literature in the seminar work is stated in the right way:
- Virtual library of Serbia in Cobiss system;
- Serbian citation index;
- In your comments write your experiences and problems with quoting literature in seminary, graduate or master thesis. We will be happy to try to answer your questions.